With the exception of the well-known forms of cancer such as prostate and breast cancer, colorectal cancer is the most common form of cancer among men and women; and this although preventive measures are both extremely easy to carry out and very effective. The examination itself takes the form of an inspection of the anus and the rectum (proctoscopy/rectoscopy). Depending on the individual risk profile, a full colonoscopy may be recommended. A proctological check-up should be carried out at least once a year. A repeated colonoscopy may be required, depending on the diagnostic findings. In general, all examinations and treatments are pain-free.